This collection of poems explores the notion of the ‘south’ from locations in Indonesia, Australia, Chile and Argentina, locations in which the poems were written. Explaining his topographical approach in these poems, Campbell says:

“One of the poems, titled in the Indonesian original ‘Lejano sur’ (Ke Kejauhan Selatan), appears alongside an English version, called ‘Further South.’ This short poem takes Borges’s short story ‘Sur’ and a reference to Avenida Rivadavia that he includes in ‘Sur’ as its starting point for crossing into ‘the South’ from the centre of Buenos Aires. I then explore ideas of southness – as paradoxically moving ‘south’ away from North into a region where ‘the natural elements are supreme’. Recent Chilean poetry eg ‘Despedidas Antárticas’ by Julio Carrasco (2006) picks up this idea of ‘towards the essence’ better than recent Australian poetry. Only Tom Griffiths, the historian, has recently explored this in prose. There are Borgesian images of dust/lack of clarity, then we head into a region where eg Torre del Paine, admittedly on the Chilean side of the Andes, come to mind. The stress on the elements – stone, wind, fire – is an allusion to the way Indonesian poet, Acep Zamzam Noor, portrays these elements in a poem ‘Batu dan Angin’ (Stone and Wind) which has strong sufi/meditative elements. We head into the polar area, which because of climate change, is now melting. But there is also an allusion to Douglas Stewart’s play ‘Fire on the Snow’ about the 1911 Scott expedition and the value of ‘human failure’. Even the ‘essence’ is melting and is no longer stable.”

Outcaste by Choice: Re-Genderings in a Short Story by Oka Rusmini

Ida Ayu Oka Rusmini is a major contemporary Indonesian author. She has published two novels, Tarian Bumi (2000) and Kenanga (2003a), a collection of short stories, (Sagra, 2001), and a volume of poetry, Patiwangi (2003b, republished in 2007 as Warna Kita, with the omission of some 12 poems). Born in Jakarta in 1967 of Balinese parents, she was a member of the highest Balinese caste, the brahmana caste, but renounced this status, including her title, after her marriage to the East Javanese essayist and poet Arif B. Prasetyo. Oka Rusmini is a graduate of the Indonesian Studies Department, Udayana University, and lives in Den Pasar where she works as a journalist for the Bali Post.

Most of Oka Rusmini’s prose works explore the constraints into which the socioreligious practices of caste place all members of society, but most especially women. Both of her novels tell of a woman’s abandonment of her brahmin caste status as the result of her marriage to a sudra. The title of the poetry book, Patiwangi, refers to the ritual practice by which this degradation is confirmed, and the poem which gives the book its title bears the footnote: ‘Patiwangi: pati = death; wangi = fragrant. Patiwangi is a ritual that is performed on a noble women in her Village Temple to remove her noble status as a consequence of having married a man of a lower caste. The ritual often has a serious psychological impact on noble women’ (107). In both novels, and many short stories and poems, their loss of status brings enormous scorn and hardship to the major woman characters. Nevertheless, as we shall see, stepping outside patriarchally-dominated caste ties may also provide an ambiguous freedom for any woman who is positioned to take advantage of the opportunities which the modern, potentially secular, nation state of Indonesia, offers her.

In this paper, I am interested in the way in which the short story, ‘Cenana’ (Sagra, 270-318), uses a traditional myth to deal various cross-caste transgressions in contemporary Balinese society. The story draws on one of the foundation myths of medieval Javanese history, the story of Ken Angrok, founder of the dynasty of Singhasari, East Java, in 1222 AD, and his consort, Ken Dedes, the wife of Ken Angrok’s predecessor. To my knowledge, although the myth has been the subject of a number of modern literary works, Oka Rusmini’s is the only account by a Balinese woman. Through its focus on the transgressions committed by strong female characters of all caste backgrounds, and dissolute male characters, Oka Rusmini’s narrative in ‘Cenana’ allows for a revision of conceptions of feminine agency in a society based on respect for high caste men and marriage to them.

Three Decades of Book Publishing in Indonesia

General Situation

Indonesian book production during the last three decades has been very low. From 1966 to 1973, the average number of titles per year was about 1,500. In 1970, Indonesia published only 700 titles, far fewer than Thailand (2,085 titles) or Myanmar (2,127 titles). From 1975 to 1983, the figure was circa 4,000, while from 1984 to 1988 it was about 6,000. However, from 1989 to 1991, it was again approximately 4,000, and so was the estimated figure in the nineties. Thus, for Indonesia, the ratio of new titles to one million population is 9, while for average developing countries it is 55, and for average advanced countries 513. It is a glaring paradox, given that 84% of the Indonesian population is supposed to be literate, far above the standard of literacy for the average developing countries, which is 69%.
In view of the 1988 Major State Guidelines, stating the aims to improve books produced in Indonesia qualitatively as well as quantitatively and to make them accessible as widely as possible at prices affordable to the people, the performance of the Indonesian book industry has been a failure. While remaining an urban phenomenon, books in Indonesia are expensive considering the low buying power of the average Indonesian person. According to Minowa’s survey in 1996 and 1997, the ratio of the average book price against the GNP in Indonesia is 10 times as high as in Japan.
Regarding books as a means of exchanging ideas between nations, Indonesian literature has a long tradition of translating foreign works. The present Indonesian book production consists of 40% original works, and 60% translated ones. During 1985-1990, there were some 590 titles of translated works, covering 38 scientific fields. As for foreign works translated, there were titles by authors such as Kalidasa, Tagore, Shakespeare, Kawabata, Yukio Mishima, Sartre, Camus, Anouilh, and many other literary giants. There were also many Indonesian writers whose works have been translated into foreign languages, such as Mochtar Lubis, Pramudya Ananta Toer, Rendra, Putu Wijaya, JB Mangunwijaya, Ajip Rosidi, and Ramadhan KH.
As regards the export of Indonesian books, it has been insignificant. In 1985 the export of various books/illustrated media/other printed matter amounted to only US$232,438, while the import was US$17,287,683. In 1994, the export figure was US$3,015,871 and the import US$43,933,105. In 1995, book exports to Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, and Thailand, amounted to only US$226,823.

Publishers and Books

Concerning the number of book publishers in Indonesia, in 1950 the Indonesian Publishers Association (IKAPI) had 14 members. By 1967, the figure had become approximately 400. In 1973, its membership shrank to 98, then it rose again to 173 in 1983 and to 295 in 1992. At present it is 622, although only 478 are active. They consist of many types of publishers dealing with general works including translations, children’s books, books for basic schools and for higher education, and religious books. Almost 70 % of the national output has traditionally been school books, and these have been overwhelmingly the product of the private sector. So it was to their detriment, when in 1969, the government decided to publish textbooks for schools. Between 1969 and 1979, some 200 million textbooks were produced. This textbook scheme wiped out some educational publishers.
In 1974, the Ministry started a programme providing primary schools with libraries. Huge printing orders for some 100 titles yearly were handed down. Between 1973/1974 and 1992/1993, for the Inpres (Presidential Instruction) Program, the government spent some Rp.122.6 billion, buying from private publishers 4,326 titles to a total of 254,166,468 copies. Instead of the district governments, the existing booksellers were appointed to distribute them. Unfortunately, most of the titles were written in a boring way and thus were left unread.

Development in the 1970s and 1980s

In the 1970s, many literary works of writers such as Sanusi Pane, Ajip Rosidi, WS. Rendra, Toto Sudarto Bachtiar and Subagio Sastrowardoyo were entering the market. Those literary publications were also accompanied by the publishing of popular novels, reference books, and various humanities titles. The increase of the number of titles produced since 1975 as shown above, was followed by the escalation of publishing activities such as book exhibitions. In 1979, IKAPI held a large and specialised book fair at a busy shopping centre in Jakarta. Since then, IKAPI book fairs have become important events in book promotion.
In the early 1980s, IKAPI used to organize training for book people. Later, such activities were done in cooperation with other institutions, such as the National Book Development Advisory Council and the British Council.For example, there were workshops on managing book publishing (1984), book writing (1985), book marketing and distribution, book design and illustration (1986), and book production (1987). In 1989, the Education Act was promulgated, stating among other things that textbooks could be produced by the government as well as the private sector. As provider of textbooks and library books for schools, the government has been the biggest buyer of books produced by private publishers. As for book promotion, every year, Yayasan Buku Utama, a foundation for the awarding of the best books, supported by the government, provides awards for the best children’s book and books for adults.

The Prestigious Board

In 1995, May was announced as the National Book Month and September as the National Reading Month. Since 1997, Yayasan Adikarya IKAPI has been giving away annual awards to the best children’s books published the year before.
Besides that, the Centre for Language Development also provides awards for the best literature. In 1997, the 1987 Copyright Law was modified in adjustment to the International Copyright Law. The same year, the Indonesian Government ratified the Berne Convention.
Since the last few years, IKAPI has been participating every year in book fairs held in Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur and Seoul, besides taking a stand in the Frankfurt Book Fair every two years. Annually, IKAPI organizes an international book fair in Jakarta, while several of its branches hold national book exhibitions in the provinces. In 1996, a team of IKAPI delegates went to Kuala Lumpur to attend the Kuala Lumpur Book Fair and to make a comparative study on Malaysian book development. A meeting with the Malaysian Book Publishers Association was also held discussing the possibilities of joint book production and of combined effort to fight against piracy.
In September 1998, Yayasan Adikarya IKAPI, backed up by the Ford Foundation, opened a crash programme, called Program Pustaka, to assist book production, aiming to help the publication of high quality books during the economic crisis. Having realized its target of subsidizing 150 titles, this programme is being followed by Program Pustaka II, which will last until July 2000.
Evidently, such a programme has been helping publishers, chiefly the small ones, to keep up their publishing enthusiasm. Coincidentally, the fervour in book publishing is in consonance with the euphoria among the media people in view of the more liberal policy of the government regarding the press. Now, there are 1,342 holders of press publication licenses, for 384 magazines, 328 dailies, 619 tabloids and 11 bulletins. Moreover, the business atmosphere is now optimistic, although the indicators in macro-economic terms are still far from being healthy. The high-spiritedness was also palpable in events such as book feasts held several times this year by some publishers in Jakarta and the Kid’s Edufair (2-7 December 1999) in Bandung. Organized by IKAPI West Java Charter in cooperation with the Bandung Institute of Technology and Banana Edutainment, the fair offered various programmes like a book fair, exhibition of children’s toys, scientific children’s tours, workshop on children’s comics, seminar on quantum learning, and seminar on children’s books.
Certainly, mention has to be made of the establishment of the National Book Development Board by Presidential Decree on 13 September 1999. Headed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, the prestigious board has the task of assisting the government in formulating development policies and strategies on books, reading and writing interest of the people and on the empowering of those active in book publishing.

Important Agenda

The National Book Development Board is firstly expected to draft the Indonesian Book Publishing Development Act as an effective means to develop the book industry in Indonesia. As a reference, the Philippine Book Publishing Development Act (R.A. 8047) deserves a close look. The next is to have a comprehensive survey conducted on the Indonesian book industry, including its market segmentation related to the kinds of literacy of the population, while clarifying whether the allegation that 84% of the Indonesian people are literate, refers to technical alphabetism or functional literacy. Moreover, it might be useful to learn from Minowa’s comparative studies on book publishing in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Furthermore, there is something to be emulated from the Indian Government, namely, the policy of a 20% tax relief on publishing profits. Finally, to enhance the exchange of ideas between nations, especially those in Asia, the Board should cooperate with its Asian counterparts in designing programmes similar to “Know Your Neighbours” Translation-Publication Program of the Toyota Foundation and the Asia-Pacific Co-publication Programme (ACP) of ACCU, Tokyo.
Whatever condition the present Indonesian book publishing is in, it is the result of a collective effort of Indonesian society as a whole. Its success or failure is an indicator of the intellectual and the socio-economic development of the Indonesian people. To develop it, synergetic efforts of all parties concerned are badly needed.

Dakidae, Daniel, Drs., Dr., “Ekonomi Politik Industri Buku di Indonesia”, in N. N., Buku Membangun Kualitas Bangsa, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1997
Hadad, Ismid, 1988, “Indonesia”, in Publishing in Asia/Pacific Today, Report of the Meeting of Experts for Planning Book Development 21-25 1987, Tokyo
Kimman, Eduard, J. J., M., 1981, Indonesian Publishing, Hollandia Baarn
Minowa, Shigeo, 1997, “96/97 IKAPI-Toyota Foundation Joint Survey on Indonesian Book Industry, A Tentative Summary Report”. (unpublished)
Pacheco, Esther M., “Book Development in the Philippines; A Situation Report”, in Pillai Sumanggala (Ed.), Books for All, edited by Sumanggala Pillai, Kuala Lumpur; Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia, for ASEAN-COCI, 1997
Soelaeman, Henny T., c.s, “Siapa Sanggup Bertahan di Millenium Baru”, SWA, 2-8 December 1999 Subrahmanian, Balan, “Publishing in India; Current Trends and Future Prospects”, in Afro/Asian
Publishing, edited by Narendra Kumar and S. K. Ghai, New DelhiOY Institute of Book Publishing, 1992
Taryadi, Alfons (Ed), 1999, Buku dalam Indonesia Baru, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta, “Promoting the Free Flow of Books in ASEAN”, in Books for All, 1997, “Indonesia,” in International Book Publishing An Encyclopedia, edited by Philip G. Altbach and Edith S. Hoshino, Garland Publishing, 1995, “Publishing in
Indonesia: Current Situation and Prospects”, in Afro/Asian Publishing, 1992, “The Present Situation of Book Industry in Indonesia”, in Consultative Meeting of Experts on a Proposed Book Publishing
Curriculum for Asia and the Pacific Forum, Manila, the Philippines, August, 1-6, 1983, “Masa Depan Terjemahan”, an article in Yubileum 25 Tahun Yayasan Buku Utama (forth-coming)

Modern Indonesian Literature Abroad

In recent years a growing interest in modern Indonesian literature Jl has become manifest outside Indonesia. It may be useful to give a short survey of such materials as have come to my notice, even though this survey is of necessity incomplete. First of all it should be mentioned that literary, cultural and scholarly journals and magazines have discovered modern Indonesian literature and regularly or incidentally publish translations of poetry, short stories, essays etc. The well-known journal INDONESIA, issued half-yearly by the Modern Indonesia Project of Cornell University, has published a number of Indonesian stories in English translation, for example Idrus’ stories Fujinkai and Och… Och … Och (vol. 2) and Surabaja (vol. 5), Ajip Rosidi’s stories Among the Family (vol. 1) and A Japanese (vol. 6), while Heather Sutherland (vol. 6) and Harry Aveling (vol. 7) contributed essays on modern literature.

THE TEN COMMON-MENTS: Some Experiences From Indonesia

So Indonesia became a republic that upholds monotheism. It sounds odd, especially when we imagine that these green and lush tropical islands, settled three thousands and some years before Moses, decided to embrace the concept of a single god in the middle of the 20th century. Right after the proclamation of
independence at the end of World War II our founding fathers were faced with a decision concerning a crucial issue: the foundation of the new state. While the Islamists groups advocated the sharia law, at least for the country’s Moslems, the nationalist faction was of the opinion that it was enough to mention
a “ belief in God,” in addition to humanism and social justice, as the state’s foundation. The Christian minority from the eastern islands gave notice of their secession if the sharia was to be mentioned in the principles. As a compromise they decided to add a cluster of adjectives to god. So, the first principle of the state foundation Pancasila [read: Pan-cha-see-la] was formulated roughly like this: The Belief in One and Only God. Thus Indonesia was born, a state which is neither theocratic nor secular. And, please be advised, the new state does not acknowledge Judaism. A prominent writer, Linus Suryadi, was once accused of blasphemy against Islam when he said that circumcision was originally a Jewish practice that was embraced by Islam.